Category: Organisations

Types of Development Teams

In some of the Tech Lead courses I have held, we sometimes talk about leadership styles and whether or not the Tech Lead role is essential. During these discussions, one of the biggest influences on both style and necessity is the style of teams.

This article represents my current classification of teams I have seen over my years in industry.

One man army

A lonely developer working on a project by themselves. Most likely they are working on multiple projects and consequently multi-tasking, because that’s the way the organisation works. Often seen in organisations that are siloed. Technically not a team but treated as a part of a team.

Distributed

Distributed teams come in many shapes and sizes. Although distributed teams are similar to Off-Shore teams (see below), distributed teams tend to be a team spanning several locations. GitHub are an example of a distributed team (and organisation). Often seen with start-ups who are seeking talent not easily found in the same location.

A distributed team typically spans several timezone, making an “all-hands” meeting more difficult. Relies on asynchronous tooling such as chat software (e.g. IRC, Slack) and virtual task boards.

Off-Shore

An Off-Shore team is a distributed team in mainly two locations. Often used by many IT organisations as a “cost-cutting” tactic trading communication effectiveness. Sometimes an off-shore team is a historical artifact (company acquisition or expansion) and necessary to keep essential knowledge alive.

Off-shore teams often have better overlap with time zones that fully distributed teams, but often results in an us-and-them mentality.

The “Pod” shaped team

The “Pod” shaped team is a co-located team who that has most of the skills they need to deliver a project. The team often includes a PM, developers, analysts, testers and sometimes operation and support people. They are all working towards the same project at the same time. This reduces co-ordination and communication lag and makes software delivery more effective.

They are called a “pod” because they are kept to a certain size (typically less than 12 people) to keep communication overhead minimised.

Functional Silos

Functional silos are not representative of effective teams because people are grouped managerially and physically by skillset instead of by goal. Each group is managed by a separate person and in larger company, decision making and authority reaches several layers much higher into the organisational hierarchy. Collaborating and changing the way that a team working on the same project across functional silos becomes very difficult to change.

Typical functional silos often seen: PM (and their PMO), Analysis, Developers, QA, DBA, System Administrators, Network and Support.

The dark side of gaming metrics

I published an article a while ago on how to design for metrics, but I read this well-written, but article of horror, “Why drivers in China intentionally kill the pedestrians they hit.”

This article hits home about the reality of a population gaming a metric and what is leading to a shift in cultural values through their actions. The short story, if you don’t read the article is that it is apparently seen as more economical to pay for someone’s death, than for their healthcare overall combined with a low chance of apparently being caught for murder. Due to the economic cost, it has apparently become acceptable, or at least, very common for someone to finish someone off, rather than pay for what medical aid they made need.

Championing P3 on a panel at DevTalks Bucharest

On Thursday I was presenting at DevTalks Bucharest, a 550+ developer conference with four different stages. I shared the panel with a Sabin Popa (Cloud Strategy Leader at IBM) and there was supposed to be another panelist but they had withdrawn. The topic of the panel was, “Innovation and data privacy – Keeping innovation alive in Cloud!” We first presented a bit about ourselves and our companies, where I was talking about our three pillars: Sustainable Business (P1), Software Excellence (P2), and Social Justice (P3).

Image courtesy of
Image courtesy of Phillipp Krenn (@xeraa)

I talked a lot about observations we see around the world with our clients – these stories really resonated with people, particularly because:

  • It is based in reality (and not just sales demonstrations or fancy presentations)
  • People are genuinely interested in what other people are doing around the world.

During the panel, I talked about the responsibilities that we have as developers for privacy, and the responsibilities that we have as educated citizens to get this on the agenda of our parliaments. I touched upon the idea of Datensparsamkeit and that we can use our knowledge to start raising awareness among our friends and families.

Although not meaning to, I found that I probably spent a lot of time talking on the panel – but mostly because both the moderator and the other panelist wanted to keep asking questions of me. I had suggested that Sabin also give his own thoughts about what they could be done about data privacy.

When we touched the topic of innovation in the cloud, the topic of certification came up – something that didn’t really surprise me. One statement was that all platforms would be certified in the future (for security) and that would be considered one form of innovation. Although useful, I challenged the position, talking about how certification gives false confidence – particularly in services and products where people are involved. I think certification is definitely useful for testing mechanical parts, for testing platforms and products that never change – but software is soft. It constantly involves and once a platform is certified, doesn’t mean it will continue to pass the same tests. I see a lot of companies sell certification as an easy answer and I believe it gives companies a false sense of confidence.

An interesting question posed to the panel is what would we do if we are asked by our company to do something that is borderline unethical but not doing the task puts our job at risk and the mention that there are many more people to do our role. This, for me, was an easy answer. I talked about our responsibility of being digitally-educated and responsible citizens of the world and talked about the bravery and confidence of people like Snowden. I challenged everyone we should think through the consequences of mindlessly doing tasks that we don’t believe in and not think about just the consequences of the job right now, but question the consequences for our family, friends and the world we are creating for future generations.

Roles, not People

Naming functions and methods are one of the hardest tasks developers need to take. A good name is hard to find, but with enough thought, is useful to show intent.

Likewise, the name for a given role is useful to help establish what that role is accountable for, and can help speed up communication when people have a common understanding of that role.

All models are wrong, but some are useful – George E.P. Box

Unfortunately there are two inherent problems with role titles:

  • People do not understand the role
  • Roles are not the same as people

Issue 1: People do not understand the role

One point of confusion is assumptions about what the role does or does not do. For example, a Project Manager might assume that the QA role will be responsible for a Testing Strategy. In another situation, a different Project Manager might assume the Tech Lead will be responsible for a Testing Strategy. In this case, different expectations could be a source of conflict about which role is responsible for the Testing Strategy.

Another example might be where the Tech Lead assumes the QA role is responsible for the Testing Strategy, and the QA role assumes the Tech Lead is responsible – resulting in no one really thinking about a Testing Strategy.

A great way mechanism to force a way forward is to run a “Roles & Responsibilities” session. I find an effective method to run one is:

  • As an entire team, brainstorm all the important activities that must be completed by the entire group. Ensure that one activity is written on a separate sticky note.
  • Brainstorm some names of roles and put them at the top of a whiteboard/flipchart next to each other. You may want to add a generic “Everyone” or “Team Member” role as well.
  • Ask everyone to place each activity under the roles they think should be responsible for the activity.
  • Walking the board, review each role one at a time and their activities, inviting discussion and disagreement about why the role should be/not be responsible for that particular activity.

This is a very useful exercise for helping to define, and articulate confusion around particular goals.

Issue 2: Roles are not the same as people

Another common failure mode of roles is where people assume that a role is the same as the person. On my business card, I have the title: Generalising Specialist because it’s true – although I consider myself a developer, architect or Principal Consultant, I am also much more than that.

Generalising Specialiast
Generalising Specialiast

People come with a whole bag of skills and experiences that sometimes fit into a particular role. Just as important as it is to understand a person’s strengths – it’s just as important to understand where their fit for a role is and the gaps. A person may be much more capable of playing several roles at once, or a role can be split among a group of people with the right set of skills and experiences.

Concluding thoughts

Remember that roles are a name we give to a collection of responsibilities and it doesn’t necessarily map to single people. A role may be split among people (where the responsibilities are distributed) but it is essential that everyone has the same understanding of who has those responsibilities.

A Tech Lead Paradox: Technical Needs vs Business Needs

Agile Manifesto signatory Jim Highsmith talks about riding paradoxes in his approach to Adaptive Leadership.

A leader will find themselves choosing between two solutions or two situations that compete against each other. A leader successfully “rides the paradox” when they adopt an “AND” mindset, instead of an “OR” mindset. Instead of choosing one solution over another, they find a way to satisfy both situations, even though they contradict one another.

A common Tech Lead paradox is the case of Technical Needs versus Business Needs.

The case for Technical Needs

Before cloud services were available on the Internet, most companies would invest in hardware to run their services. The work to setup and configure machines was easier for non-technical stakeholders to see because of its physical aspect. Today software requires even more software and non-physical services that need configuring, testing and releasing. Much more of it is virtual.

Practices such as Continuous Delivery do not come without some overhead, although it provides an invaluable business capability. All of these “internally-facing” technical requirements demand time from the software delivery team.

The case for Business Needs

A lot of software is written for businesses, whose overall goal is to make money. A business that does not evolve their business offerings will lose out to competitors or to the ever-changing consumer marketplace. This means a business wants to always experiment with their existing services, or provide new services to keep their existing customer base, or to attract new customers.

This pressure to modify, or introduce new services demand either software support, or new software to be developed.

The conflict

A business will always put pressure on a development team to produce as much software as possible. At the same time, effective delivery of software is not possible without addressing some level of technical needs – such as technical debt, deployment pipelines, or automated test suites.

Time spent on technical needs is expected to improve developer effectiveness, but this is often hard to measure and prove to outside stakeholders. An endless amount of time can always be spent tweaking, optimising and improving technical infrastructure and tools. What starts off as “just an afternoon” turns into a week, or a month and business features are put on hold as a result. If this happens too long, the business might miss agreed external deadlines for certain features and thus lose customers, or money.

What does a Tech Lead do?

Champion time for Technical Needs

A Tech Lead champions for time to spend on Technical Needs by being part of the prioritisation process. They ensure that enough work is delivered, or finds solutions to business problems that minimise the amount of software that needs writing. They ensure the team is not over-loaded with delivering new features and changes and finds small slices to work on technical needs that will provide a good benefit.

Explain the business benefit of each Technical Need

A team can spend an endless amount of time investigating, configuring and supporting their technical infrastructure. A Tech Lead will have support from non-technical stakeholders if they understand what benefits they bring. The successful Tech Lead can explain not just what the team is working on, but also why and who else benefits.

Some typical business benefits include: reducing the amount of repetitive work, improving the quality (by minimising the chance of human error), or to prove out a business opportunity.

The Tech Lead builds trust with non-technical people by highlighting benefits on Technical Needs and also demonstrating if they reach those benefits.

Work on high impact items first

A list of Technical Needs will often be endless, so a Tech Lead will work to prioritise the list, culling items that no longer make sense, or pulling work items forward that may have an immediate and significant effect.

Keep a balance

The Tech Lead is mindful that the team cannot work on Technical Needs alone, and watches to ensure a good balance is met.

Maximise the use of “quiet” periods

Sometimes a development team will outpace the ability for a business to prioritise, “What’s next?” You might recognise these periods when a Product Owner has met all their objectives, or they are working on clarifying the next set. The Tech Lead uses these “quiet periods” as an opportunity for their development team to work on infrastructure, or tasks that have always been deprioritised.

These are often good periods for a team to run a “Hack Day” or for the team to work on small ideas they have had themselves that provide a good benefit.

If you liked this article, you will be interested in “Talking with Tech Leads,” a book that shares real life experiences from over 35 Tech Leads around the world. Now available on Leanpub.

Why you want to give up coding

A background story

A friend of mine worked as a Tech Lead, let’s call them Jo (not their real name) for most of their career. A few years ago, Jo moved into a management role that involved very little coding. They were no longer working full-time as a developer and they stopped playing a Tech Lead role. Jo now leads an organisation with six or seven large development groups.

In the definition of a Tech Lead, I suggested a Tech Lead should write code a minimum of 30% of their time. Jo managed to find some time writing code, but it was inconsistent – about an hour a week. In a 40-hour week, that is less than 3%. Jo missed writing code. Jo was no longer a developer and Jo was no Tech Lead.

What do you control? What do you influence?

Every role comes with a set of responsibilities, and the authority to fulfil those responsibilities. This authority gives you a certain amount of control.

For example, a developer has control over the code and tests that they design and write. Others may have influence over the code. Examples of influencing factors include architectural or product and/or platform constraints, team code standards and code reviews. Ultimately the developer has control over their own code.

Every company has a certain organisational design. Developers (and other employees) work within this structure. The organisational design impacts on how effective software delivery is. Rigidly hierarchical structures with completely different departments (e.g. developers and testers) have difficulty collaborating. An ineffective organisational design is a sore point for many developers because it makes delivering software much harder.

A developer has zero control over organisational design. They might be able to influence it, but it is ultimately controlled by managers. Some developers may try to change this, but most complain. I have heard this from developers in the past:

Who’s brilliant idea was to setup a development [team] like this?

Who's great idea was this?
Another example.

I can’t get anything done because I rely on those people to get something done and they sit on another floor.

Developers can complain, which is an ineffective style of influencing, although there are many more effective ways. In the book Influence: The Psychology of Persuasion, the author, Robert Cialdini outlines six key influencing strategies: Reciprocity, Commitment (and Consistency), Social Proof, Liking (a variant of the Halo Effect), Authority, and Scarcity.

Developers only influence their working environment. They do not control it. Note: An exception is, of course, when a company is small enough that the developer also takes on general organisational management responsibilities (e.g. in a startup)

Trading control for influence

Influence for control

Jo, who moved from being a developer to a Tech Lead, and again from a Tech Lead to a general manager shared an interesting insight with me.

You know those things I used to complain about as a developer? Well, now I have the ability to change them.

Programmers see the “non-technical” path as a path with nothing to offer. When programmers step into a leadership role, they inherit both responsibilities and the authority to control more of their work environment. A developer works within these constraints. A Tech Lead has more authority to change those constraints, and a manager even more authority to control and change those constraints.

How does this impact developers who become Tech Leads?

When developers give up their control in trade of influence, their sphere of influence grows. Instead of developing a single feature, they can guide the entire technical solution. The Tech Lead’s influence also grows between the technical and the business side. A Tech Lead has much more influence over how technology can be used to solve business problems, while developers are engaged too late.

I would suggest to Tech Leads never to give up all coding. Instead, it is trading more of the time you would spend crafting code, in exchange for a wider sphere of influence. The wider sphere of influence helps not just you, but also your team write better code in a better work environment.

If you liked this article, you will be interested in “Talking with Tech Leads,” a book that shares real life experiences from over 35 Tech Leads around the world. Now available on Leanpub. The featured image from this post is taken from Flickr under the Creative Commons licence

A Tech Lead Paradox: Delivering vs Learning

Agile Manifesto signatory Jim Highsmith talks about riding paradoxes in his approach to Adaptive Leadership.

A leader will find themselves choosing between two solutions or two situations that compete against each other. A leader successfully “rides the paradox” when they adopt an “AND” mindset, instead of an “OR” mindset. Instead of choosing one solution over another, they find a way to satisfy both situations, even though they contradict one another.

A common Tech Lead paradox is the case of Delivering versus Learning.

The case for delivering

In the commercial of software development, there will always be pressure to deliver software that satisfy user needs. Without paying customers, companies cannot pay their employees. The more software meets user needs, the more a company earns, and the more the company can invest in itself.

Business people will always be asking for more software changes as there is no way of knowing if certain features really do meet user needs. Business people do not understand (and cannot be expected to fully understand) what technical infrastructure is needed to deliver features faster or more effectively. As such, they will always put pressure on to deliver software faster.

From a purely money-making point of view, it is easy to interpret delivering software as the way of generating more earnings.

The case for learning

Software is inherently complex. Technology constantly changes. The problem domain shifts as competitors release new offerings and customer needs change in response and evolve through constant usage. People, who have certain skills, leave a company and new people, who have different skills, join. Finding the right balance of skills to match the current set of problems is a constant challenge.

From a technologist’s point of view, learning about different technologies can help solve problems better. Learning about completely different technologies opens up new opportunities that may lead to new product offerings. But learning takes time.

The conflict

For developers to do their job most effectively, they need time to learn new technologies, and to improve their own skills. At the same time, if they spend too much time learning, they cannot deliver enough to help a company to reach their goals, and the company may not earn enough money to compensate their employees and in turn, developers.

Encouraging learning at the cost of delivering also potentially leads to technology for technology’s sake – where developers use technology to deliver something. But what they deliver may not solve user needs, and the whole company suffers as a result.

What does a Tech Lead do?

A Tech Lead needs to keep a constant balance between finding time to learn, and delivering the right thing effectively. It will often be easier for a Tech Lead to succumb to the pressure of delivering over learning. Below is advice for how you can keep a better balance between the two.

Champion for some time to learn

Google made famous their 20% time for developers. Although not consistently implemented across the entire organisation, the idea has been adopted by several other companies to give developers some creative freedom. 20% is not the only way. Hack days, like Atlassian’s ShipIt days (renamed from FedEx days) also set aside some explicit, focused time to allow developers to learn and play.

Champion learning that addresses user needs

Internally run Hack Days encourage developers to unleash their own ideas on user needs, where they get to apply their own creativity, and often learn something in the process. They often get to play with technologies and tools they do not use during their normal week, but the outcome is often focused on a “user need” basis, with more business investment (i.e. time) going towards a solution that makes business sense – and not just technology for the sake of technology.

Capture lessons learned

In large development teams, the same lesson could be learned by different people at different times. This often means duplicated effort that could have been spent learning different or new things. A Tech Lead can encourage team members to share what they have learned with other team members to spread the lessons.

Some possibilities I have experienced include:

  • Running regular learning “show-and-tell” sessions – Where team members run a series of lightning talks or code walkthroughs around problems recently encountered and how they went about solving it.
  • Update a FAQ page on a wiki – Allows team members to share “how to do common tasks” that are applicable in their own environment.
  • Share bookmark lists – Teams create a list of links that interesting reads based on problems they have encountered.

Encourage co-teaching and co-learning

A Tech Lead can demonstrate their support for a learning environment but encouraging everyone to be a student and a teacher at the same time. Most team members will have different interests and strengths, and a Tech Lead can encourage members to share what they have. Encouraging team members to run brown bag sessions on topics that enthuse them encourage an atmosphere of sharing.

Weekly reading list

I know of a few Tech Leads who send a weekly email with interesting reading links to a wide variety of technology-related topics. Although they do not expect everyone to read every link, each one is hopeful that one of those links will be read by someone on their team.

If you liked this article, you will be interested in “Talking with Tech Leads,” a book that shares real life experiences from over 35 Tech Leads around the world. Now available on Leanpub.

A Tech Lead Paradox: Consistency vs Improvement

Agile Manifesto signatory Jim Highsmith talks about riding paradoxes in his approach to Adaptive Leadership.

A leader will find themselves choosing between two solutions or two situations that compete against each other. A leader successfully “rides the paradox” when they adopt an “AND” mindset, instead of an “OR” mindset. Instead of choosing one solution over another, they find a way to satisfy both situations, even though they contradict one another.

A common Tech Lead paradox is the case of Consistency versus Improvement.

The case for consistency

Code is easier to understand, maintain and modify when it is consistent. It is so important, that there is a wiki page on the topic and the 1999 classic programming book, The Pragmatic Programmer: From Journeyman to Master had a chapter titled, “The Evils of Duplication.” Martin Fowler wrote about similar code smells, calling them “Divergent Change” and “Shotgun Surgery” in his Refactoring book.

Consistency ultimately helps other developers (or even your future-self) change code with less mental burden figuring out of there will be unwanted side-effects.

The case for improvement

Many developers want to use the latest and greatest tool, framework or programming language. Some examples: Java instead of C/C++, Python/Ruby instead of Java, JavaScript (Node) instead of Python/Ruby and then Clojure in place of JavaScript. The newest and latest technologies promise increased productivity, fewer bugs and more effective software development. Something that we all want. They promise the ability to accomplish something with fewer lines of code, or a simpler, clearer way to write something.

The conflict

Software is meant to be soft. Software is meant to be changed. A successful codebase will evolve over time, but the more features and changes a codebase has, the harder it becomes to add something new without making the codebase inconsistent. When a new technology is added to the mix, there is suddenly two ways of accomplishing the same thing. Multiple this over time and number of transitions, and a codebase suddenly has eight different ways of accomplishing

Transitioning everything to a new technology is a function takes time. Making a change to an old part of the system is a gamble. Leaving the codebase as it is makes potentially new change in this area hard. That new change may never happen. Migrating everything over has the risk of introducing unwanted side-effects and taking time that may never be worth it.

To the developer wanting the new technology, the change appears easy. To those who have to follow up with change (i.e. other team members or future team members) it may not be so clear. Making it consistent takes time away from developing functionality. Business stakeholders want (understandably) justification.

Phil Calçado (@pcalcado) tweeted about this paradox:

As a dev, I love going for the shiny language. As a manager, I want a mature ecosystem and heaps of bibliography on how to write decent apps

What does a Tech Lead do?

Tech Leads ride the paradox by encouraging improvement and continually seeking consistency. But how? Below I provide you with a number of possible solutions.

Use Spike Solutions

Spikes are a time-boxed XP activity to provide an answer to a simple question. Tech Leads can encourage spike solutions to explore whether or not a new technology provides the foreseeable benefit.

Improvement spikes are usually written stand-alone – either in a branch or on a separate codebase. They are written with the goal of learning something as fast as possible, without worrying about writing maintainable code. When the spike is over, the spike solution should be thrown away.

Spikes provide many benefits over discussion because a prototype better demonstrates the benefits and problems given a particular codebase and problem domain. The spike solution provides a cheap way to experiment before committing to a particular direction.

Build a shared roadmap

Improvements are easy to make to a small, young codebase. Everything is easily refactored to design a new tool/technology. It’s the larger longer-lived codebases that are more difficult to change because more has been built up on the foundations that must be changed.

A Tech Lead establishes a shared understanding with the team of what “good” looks like. Specifically, which tool/technology should be used for new changes. They keep track of older instances, looking to transition them across where possible (and where it makes sense).

Techniques like the Mikado Method are indispensable for tackling problems that eating away at the bigger problem.

Playback the history

A new developer sees five different ways of doing the same thing. What do they do? A Tech Lead pre-empts this problem by recounting the story of how change was introduced, what was tried when and what the current preferred way of doing things are.

Ideally the Tech Lead avoids having five different ways of accomplishing the same thing, but when not possible, they provide a clear way ahead.

If you liked this article, you will be interested in “Talking with Tech Leads,” a book that shares real life experiences from over 35 Tech Leads around the world. Now available on Leanpub.

The Definition of a Tech Lead

There are many names for leadership roles in software development such as Senior Developer, Architect, Technical Lead, Team Lead, and Engineering Manager. These are just a few. To me, the Technical Leader (Tech Lead) plays an unique and essential role that others cannot.

The Definition

The Short: A Tech Lead is a developer who is responsible for leading a development team.

Tech Lead

The Long: Leading a development team is no easy task. An effective Tech Lead establishes a technical vision with the development team and works with developers to turn it into reality. Along the way, a Tech Lead takes on traits that other roles may have, such as a Team Lead, Architect or Software Engineering Manager but they remain hands-on with code.

To make the most effective choices and to maintain trust and empathy with developers, a Tech Lead must code. In “The Geek’s Guide to Leading Teams” presentation, I talked about an ideal minimum time of about 30%.

Effective Tech Leads Code
An extract from the The Geek’s Guide to Leading Teams presentation

Not just a Team Lead

Early in my career, I worked on a team that had both a Tech Lead and a Team Lead. The Team Lead didn’t have much of a technical background and had a strong focus on the people side and tracking of tasks. They would have 1-to-1s with people on the team, and co-ordinate with outside stakeholders to schedule meetings that didn’t interrupt development time where possible.

The Team and Tech Lead

While the Team Lead focused on general team issues, the Tech Lead focused on technical matters that affected more than just one developer. They stepped in on heated technical debates, and worked with outside stakeholders to define technical options and agree on solutions for future streams of work. They wrote code with the other developers and sometimes called for development “huddles” to agree on a direction.

More hands-on than an Engineering Manager

You manage things, you lead people – Grace Hopper

Any reasonably-sized IT organisation has an Engineering Manager. They are responsible for more than one development, and have tasks that include:

  • Maintaining a productive working environment for development teams.
  • Acquiring appropriate budget for development to support business goals.
  • Representing the technology perspective on a management or board level.
  • Establishes and/or co-ordinates programmes of work (delivered through development).
  • Responsible for overall IT headcount.

Engineering Manager

Depending on the size of an organisation, an Engineering Manager may also be called a Chief Technical Officer (CTO) or Chief Information Officer (CIO) or Head of Software Development.

Although an Engineering Manager represents technology, they are often very far-removed from a development team and rarely code. In contrast, a Tech Lead sits with developers, very much focused on moving them towards their goal. They work to resolve technical disputes, and are watchful of technical decisions that have long-term consequences. A Tech Lead works closely with the Engineering Manager to build an ideal work environment.

A good Architect looks like a Tech Lead

The Architect role ensures overall application architecture suitably fits the business problem, for now and for the future. In some organisations, Architects work with the team to establish and validate their understanding of architecture. A suitable amount of standardisation helps productivity. Too much standardisation kills innovation.

Some organisations have the “Ivory Tower Architect” who swoops in to consult, standardise and document. They float from team-to-team, start new software projects, and rarely follow up to see the result of their initial architectural vision.

An effective Architect looks like a good Tech Lead. They establish a common understanding of what the team is aiming for, and make adjustments as the team learns more about the problem and the technology chosen to solve it.

What is a Tech lead again?

A successful Tech Lead takes on responsibilities that sit with roles such as the Team Lead, the Architect and the Engineering Manager. They bring a unique blend of leadership and management skills applied in a technical context with a team of developers. The Tech Lead steers a team towards a common technical vision, writing code at least 30% of the time.

If you liked this article exploring the Tech Lead role, you will be interested in “Talking with Tech Leads,” a book that shares real life experiences from over 35 Tech Leads around the world. Now available on Leanpub.

Disrupt yourself, or someone else will

A couple of days ago, Apple announced their new range of iPads including a mini with a retina display and a lighter, thinner full-sized iPad. Notice anything strange about their prices?

iPad2 Pricing

As can see the new mini retina priced at exactly the same price point as the (old) ipad2. Seem strange? You’re not the only one to think so as outlined by a comment from this appleinsider article.

Comment

This isn’t the first time Apple have priced a new product at the same as an older product (and probably won’t be the last).

The Innovator’s Dilemma
In the book, The Innovator’s Dilemma: When New Technologies Cause Great Firms to Fail, the author shows organisations that fail to embrace new technologies because they focus on the success of a single product or technology.

By offering these lines (new and old) Apple effectively segments their market into the early adopters of technology while providing (older and probably less appealing) options to all others. A conflict of features (retina display in a smaller form factor) makes users decide what is more important to them.

By removing the older iPad2, they effectively force consumers to move to the new platform and some of their customers may be happy with the existing product. Apple is effectively disrupting themself before their competition can.

Uses our cognitive biases

Having the same price point for a newer technology also taps into the anchoring cognitive bias (sometimes called the relativity trap).

Without the older product in the lineup, the newer products would not appear so appealing. The “anchor” of the older product is effectively pushing people to the newer products.

A person would ask:

Why would I buy older technology for the same price?

and then make the trade off for a smaller size, or if they want a newer size, pay another premium for it.